Thursday, September 15, 2011

The combined population of Hindi and Urdu speakers is the fourth largest in the world.

The combined population of Hindi and Urdu speakers is the fourth largest in the world.
इसमें हिंदी और उर्दू बोलने वालों की तादाद एक साथ बताई गई है.
कौन बताएगा कि कितने करोड़ लोग बोलते हैं हिंदी ?

Urdu (Urdu: اردو, IPA: [ˈʊrd̪u] ( listen); English: /ˈʊərduː/) (Hindi: उर्दू) is a Central Indo-Aryan language and a register of the Hindustani language that is linguistically identified with Muslims in the Indian subcontinent. It belongs to the Indo-European family. It is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also largely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an official language of five states. Based on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and Western Uttar Pradesh in the Indian subcontinent, Urdu developed under local Persian, Arabic, and Turkic influence over the course of almost 900 years.[2] It began to take shape in what is now Uttar Pradesh, India during the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1527), and continued to develop under the Mughal Empire (1526–1858). Standard Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi. Both languages share the same Indic base and are so similar in phonology and grammar that they appear to be one language.[3] The combined population of Hindi and Urdu speakers is the fourth largest in the world.[4]
The original language of the Mughals was Chagatai, a Turkic language, but after their arrival in the Indian subcontinent, they came to adopt Persian. Gradually, the need to communicate with local inhabitants led to a composition of Sanskrit-derived languages written in the Perso-Arabic script and with literary conventions and specialised vocabulary being retained from Persian, Arabic and Turkic; the new standard was eventually given its own name of Urdu.[5] Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi. The main differences between the two are that Standard Urdu is conventionally written in Nastaliq calligraphy style of the Perso-Arabic script and relies heavily on Persian and Arabic as a source for technical and literary language,[6] whereas Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devanāgarī and draws on Sanskrit.[7] However, both have large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit words, and most linguists consider them to be two standardized forms of the same language,[8][9] and consider the differences to be sociolinguistic,[10] though a few classify them separately.[11] Mutual intelligibility decreases in literary and specialized contexts which rely on educated vocabulary. Because of religious nationalism since the partition of British India and continued communal tensions, native speakers of both Hindi and Urdu frequently assert them to be completely distinct languages, despite the fact that they generally cannot tell the colloquial languages apart.

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